Studies have shown that Glypican-3 antibody (GPC3) protein is expressed in most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), but is undetectable in normal liver and benign hepatic lesions, including dysplastic and cirrhotic nodules. GPC3 is also significantly elevated in the serum of most patients with HCC. Several studies report that Glypican-3 is a sensitive diagnostic marker for HCC and a tool for differentiating HCC from non-neoplastic and pre-neoplastic liver disease. Our TMA-based studies have shown that Glypican-3 is positive in 90.4% (66/73) of hepatocellular carcinoma cases and negative in 100% of cholangiocellular carcinoma, normal liver and hyperplasia cases.
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