Approximately 12,000 men and women in the United States are diagnosed with gallbladder cancer annually, leading to an annual estimated 4,000 deaths.1 Gallbladder and other biliary cancers are comparatively rare in the United States, with about 0.7% of new cancer cases classified as gallbladder, contributing approximately 0.6% of cancer deaths yearly.1 Worldwide, gallbladder and other biliary cancers are the twenty-second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the eighteenth leading cause of cancer death, with an annual estimated 219,400 cases and 165,100 deaths.2

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is predominantly found in women (female to male ratio, 3-4: 1), which may be related to increased incidence of gallstones in women.3 In addition to gallstones and gender, there are other risk factors that may influence the development of GBC:4

• Gallbladder polyps: Growths that may form as a result from an embedded gallstone or inflammation.
• Age:
Most patients diagnosed with GBC are in the sixth or seventh decade of life.
• Ethnicity: In the United States, Hispanic and Native Americans have a higher rate of gallbladder cancer than other ethnic groups.
• Smoking: Tobacco use may elevate the risk of death from gallbladder cancer dose-dependently among both men and women.
• Family history: Family history of GBC slightly increases risk of developing GBC.

GBC is a poor prognosis malignancy since it usually presents at a very advanced stage. Early detection of GBC is often difficult because symptoms mimic benign gallbladder diseases, such as gallstones and biliary colic.5 Differentiation of GBC versus non-malignant gallbladder disease is critical to accurate diagnosis and treatment. There have been many immunomarkers reported to be expressed in GBC and not expressed in normal/benign gallbladder: CA 19-9, CEA, Mucin 5AC, S100P, IMP3, GLUT-1, p53, and CDX2.6,7,8,9

As part of our promise of “Fighting Cancer, One Slide at a Time,” Biocare Medical is proud to offer key high-quality immunohistochemistry (IHC) antibodies that aid in accurate classification of gallbladder and other biliary tumors.

Key Antibodies for Gallbladder and Biliary Cancer

Product Name Clone Catalog Number
CA 19-9 BC/121SLE CM 123; PM 123
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA {M}) COL-1 CM 058; PM 058
Mucin 5AC 45M1 CM 231
S100P N/A ACI 3010; API 3010
IMP3 (RM) EP286 ACI 3180; API 3180
GLUT-1 SPM498 CM 408; PM 408
p53 EP9 CME 298; PME 298; IP 298
p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein DO-7 CM 042; PM 042
CDX2 [BC39] BC39 ACI 3184; API 3184; AVI 3184
CDX2 (RM) EP25 ACI 3144; API 3144

Clinical References:

1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017 Jan;67(1):7-30.
2. Bray F, et al. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018 Nov;68(6):394-424.
3. Giang TH, et al. Diagn Pathol. 2012 Jan 27;7:10.
4. https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/gallbladder-cancer/risk-factors
5. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/gallbladder-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging
6. Hughes NR, Bhathal PS. J Clin Pathol. 2013 Mar;66(3):212-7.
7. Lin F, Chen ZE, Wang HL. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015 Jan;139(1):24-38.
8. Xiong L, et al. J Surg Oncol. 2012 Jan;105(1):97-103.
9. Park SY, et al. Oncol Rep. 2009 Sep;22(3):649-57.