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α-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR), also known as P504S, is a peroxisomal and mitochondrial enzyme that plays a role in bile acid synthesis and β oxidation of branched chain fatty acids (1).
AMACR was initially identified from a cDNA library as a gene that is overexpressed in human prostate cancer; with little or no expression in normal or benign prostate glands (2-3). In immunohistochemistry, AMACR has been shown to be a marker of prostatic adenocarcinoma (2-5).
Additionally, prostate glands involved in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), have been found
to express AMACR; whereas AMACR was nearly undetectable in benign glands (5-6).
1. Ferdinandusse S, et al. Subcellular localization and physiological role of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. J Lipid Res. 2000 Nov; 41 (11):1890-6.
2. Xu J, et al. Identification of differentially expressed genes in human prostate cancer using subtraction and microarray. Cancer Res. 2000 Mar 15; 60(6):1677-82.
3. Rubin MA, et al. alpha-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase as a tissue biomarker for prostate cancer. JAMA. 2002 Apr 3; 287 (13):1662-70.
4. Luo J, et al. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a new molecular marker for prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2002 Apr 15; 62(8):2220-6.
5. Zhou M, et al. Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: a novel tumor marker over-expressed in several human cancers and their precursor lesions. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Jul; 26(7):926-31.
6. Wu CL, et al. Analysis of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504S) expression in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Hum Pathol. 2004 Aug; 35(8):1008-13.
7. Center for Disease Control Manual. Guide: Safety Management, NO. CDC-22, Atlanta, GA. April 30, 1976 “Decontamination of Laboratory Sink Drains to Remove Azide Salts.”
8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory workers from occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved guideline-Third Edition CLSI document M29-A3 Wayne, PA 2005.