Glutamine Synthetase

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Glutamine Synthetase (GS) catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine, which is the major energy source of tumor cells. Accumulation of GS was first found through analyzing increased ubiquitinated protein in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its stepwise increase in expression from precancerous lesions to early advanced HCC. Liver biopsy for HCC detection is largely restricted to small hepatocellular lesions, which are often morphologically challenging, requiring careful distinction between dysplastic nodules (high-grade) and well-differentiated HCC. When a panel of GS, Heat Shock Protein 70 and Glypican 3 is used, if any 2 of the 3 are positive, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of early and HCC-G1 were 72% and 100% respectively. Also GS activity is a marker for astrocytes and can be used to distinguish astrocytic from oligodendroglial tumors and may play a role in the pathogenesis of astrocytomas.

Intended Use


Species Reactivity



Mouse Monoclonal


6/Glutamine Synthetase




Glutamine Synthetase



Positive Control

Hepatocellular cancer

1. Zhuang Z, et al. Proteomic identification of glutamine synthetase as a differential marker for oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. J Neurosurg. 2011 Jun 17. [Epub ahead of print] 2. Long J, et al. Glutamine synthetase as an early marker for hepatocellular carcinoma based on proteomic analysis of resected small hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2010 Jun; 9(3):296-305.
3. Roskams T, Kojiro M. Pathology of early hepatocellular carcinoma: conventional and molecular diagnosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2010 Feb; 30(1):17-25. Epub 2010 Feb 19.
4. Sakamoto M. Early HCC: diagnosis and molecular markers. J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44 Suppl 19:108-11.
5. Di Tommaso L, et al. The application of markers (HAP70 GPC3 and GS) in liver biopsies is useful for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2009 Apr; 50 (4):746-54.
6. Center for Disease Control Manual. Guide: Safety Management, NO. CDC-22, Atlanta, GA. April 30, 1976 “Decontamination of Laboratory Sink Drains to Remove Azide Salts.”
7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory workers from occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved guideline-Third Edition CLSI document M29-A3 Wayne, PA 2005


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