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Glutamine Synthetase antibody (GS) catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine, the major energy source of tumor cells. Accumulation of GS was first found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver biopsy for HCC detection is largely restricted to small hepatocellular lesions, which are often morphologically challenging, requiring careful distinction between dysplastic nodules (high-grade) and well-differentiated HCC. When a panel of GS, Heat Shock Protein 70 and Glypican 3 is used, if any 2 of the 3 are positive, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of early HCC-G1 were 72% and 100% respectively.
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