SALL4 is required for the maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency by modulating Oct4. Studies support SALL4 as a sensitive and specific marker for seminomas and ovarian primitive germ-cell tumors. Studies have demonstrated that over 90% of tumor cells in intratubular germ-cell neoplasias and embryonal carcinomas show strong SALL4 staining. In addition, 100% of 31 yolk sac tumors (5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal) showed strong positive SALL4 staining of tumor cells, but were negative for Oct4. SALL4 antibody is a promising pan germ-cell marker, with studies showing that it is superior to PLAP and Oct4 antibodies.