NKX is a prostate-specific tumor suppressor gene and loss of a single allele may predispose to prostate carcinogenesis1. Studies have shown that the onset of MYC over expression and the subsequent development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia coincide with this reduction in NKX2 . Over-expression of MYC has been reported as an early oncogenic event driving prostatic cancer progression3. Data shows that NKX expression is highly, but not exclusively, specific for the prostate. Loss of NKX3.1 expression is strongly associated with hormone-refractory disease and advanced tumor stage in prostate cancer4.
1. Roles for Nkx3.1 in prostate development and cancer. Rajula Bhatia-Gaur, Annemarie A. Donjacour, Peter J. Sciavolino, Minjung Kim, Nishita Desai, et al.Genes Dev. 1999 Apr 15;13(8):966-77.
2. MYC Overexpression Induces Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Loss of Nkx3.1 in Mouse Luminal Epithelial Cells. Tsuyoshi Iwata, Denise Schultz, Jessica Hicks, Gretchen K. Hubbard, Laura N. Mutton, et al. PLoS ONE 5(2): e9427. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009427, (2010).
3. Overexpression of C-MYC oncogene in prostate cancer predicts biochemical recurrence. Hawksworth D1, Ravindranath L, Chen Y, Furusato B, Sesterhenn IA, McLeod DG, Srivastava S, Petrovics G. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2010 Dec;13(4):311-5. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2010.31. Epub 2010 Sep 7
4. Loss of NKX3.1 Expression in Human Prostate Cancers Correlates with Tumor Progression. Cai Bowen, Lukas Bubendorf, H. James Voeller, Rebecca Slack, et al.Cancer Res November 1, 2000 60; 6111
5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory workers from occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved Guideline-Fourth Edition CLSI document M29-A4 Wayne, PA 2014.