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Lung Cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men worldwide1. Approximately 80% of lung cancers are classified as NonSmall Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)2. NSCLC is characterized by recurrent gene fusion events involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) 2p23 and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4) 2p21 genes3. The prevalence of ALK-EML4 rearrangement identified in NSCLC cases can range from 1.6 -11.7%4. The ALK gene resides on chromosome 2p23 and encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor. Chromosomal abnormalities involving the ALK gene have been associated with multiple cancer indications5. ALK gene rearrangements, involving the EML4 gene result in the formation of the ALK-EML4 gene fusion protein that possesses potent oncogenic activity5. The EML4 gene is part of a family of echinoderm microtubule associated protein like proteins and maps to the same chromosome as the ALK gene. ALK-EML4 gene rearrangement is one of the most common pathogenic features of lung cancer and is commonly identified in younger patients5. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is one of the primary tools to detect ALK-EML4 gene rearrangements.
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