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The p21 encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of Cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes and functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of the p21 antibody gene is controlled by the tumor suppressor p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli. Studies have shown that the re-localization of 21WAFI/CIPI from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, results in a loss of those tumor suppressor functions. This loss has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in breast cancers, renal carcinoma, gastric and colon cancer.
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2. Zhou BP, Liao Y, Xia W, Spohn B, Lee M-H, Hung M-C: Cytoplasmic localisation of p21Cip1/WAF1 by Akt-induced phosphorylation in HER-2/neu-overexpressing cells. Nat Cell Biol 2001, 3:245-252.
3. Winters ZE, Leek RD, Bradburn MJ, Norbury CJ, Harris AL. Cytoplasmic p21WAF1/CIP1 expression is correlated with HER-2/ neu in breast cancer and is an independent predictor of prognosis. Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(6):R242-9. Epub 2003 Oct 3.
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