Biocare Medical offers the largest variety of IHC-specific permanent chromogens, for use with the two most commonly used enzyme labels: Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP). Chromogens are chemical compounds used within IHC staining procedures that produce a colored end-product that can be visualized under bright-field microscopy. Biocare’s chromogens generate a broad spectrum of colors, shown in the table below.
Chromogen Color Chart
|Chromogens for HRP||End-Product Color|
|Betazoid DAB (3rd generation)||Brown|
|Cardassian DAB (2nd generation)||Black Brown|
|DAB (1st generation)||Brown|
|Romulin AEC||Brick Red|
|Deep Space Black™||Black|
|Chromogens for AP||End-Product Color|
|Warp Red™||Fuchsin red|
|Vulcan Fast Red (VFR)||Fuchsin Red|
|Ferangi Blue||Royal Blue|
Chromogens Compatible with HRP
Betazoid DAB Chromogen Kit
Betazoid DAB is the third-generation DAB product developed by Biocare. It is superior to conventional DAB and Cardassian DAB in terms of stability and staining intensity. This chromogen is compatible with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), not soluble in alcohol or xylene, and can be coverslipped just like any other DAB. When in the presence of peroxidase enzyme, Betazoid produces a brown stain. Betazoid DAB may increase antibody titers by two fold; and can be used manually or on automated stainers.
Cardassian DAB Chromogen Kit
DAB is widely used in IHC staining and immunoblotting, DAB produces a brown precipitate that is insoluble in alcohol and xylene for permanent mounting. This system consists of a three-component system of a liquid stable DAB chromogen, DAB substrate buffer and DAB Enhancer. The enhancer adds contrast and a slight increase in staining intensity.
Romulin AEC Chromogen Kit
A permanent mounting system for HRP versus aqueous mounting, Romulin AEC produces a brick-red stain and is not soluble in alcohol, xylene or xylene substitutes. This system consists of four components: buffer, stabilizer, chromogen and hydrogen peroxide. This system is compatible with both manual and automatic coverslippers.
Bajoran Purple Chromogen Kit
This is a permanent chromogen substrate kit that is compatible with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). It is not soluble in alcohol or xylene, and can be coverslipped just like DAB. When in the presence of a peroxidase enzyme, Bajoran purple produces a permanent lavender-purple stain. This product comes in a four-component system consisting of a ready-to-use buffer, stabilizer, chromogen and hydrogen peroxide. Bajoran Purple may also be used in double- and triple-stain procedures, nitrocellulose blots, and can be viewed by both brightfield and darkfield microscopy.
Vina Green™ Chromogen Kit
Vina Green is a novel permanent chromogen that produces a green stain in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The kit consists of liquid Vina Green chromogen and buffer that are stable at least 4 hours at room temperature. Vina Green is clearly distinguishable from Warp Red and DAB on a single slide, enabling high flexibility for its application in Multiplex IHC. Developed for both manual and automated platforms, Vina Green is suitable for both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) applications including HPV, CMV, EBV, p63, TTF-1, Ki-67 and other targets antigens such as blood and lymphatic vessels, and basal and myoepithelial cells.
Deep Space Black™ Chromogen Kit
Deep Space Black™ is a novel permanent chromogen that produces a dark grey to black stain in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The kit consists of liquid Deep Space Black chromogen and buffer that is stable for 8 hours at room temperature once mixed. Deep Space Black is clearly distinguishable from Warp Red™, DAB, Vina Green™ and Ferangi Blue™ on a single slide, enabling high flexibility for Multiplex IHC™ applications. Developed for both manual and automated platforms, Deep Space Black is suitable for both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) applications including HPV, CMV, EBV, Kappa, Lambda, p63, HMWCK, TTF-1, Ki-67, and other targets/antigens such as cytokeratins, melanoma, and basal and myoepithelial cells.
Chromogens Compatible with Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)
Warp Red™ Chromogen Kit
Biocare Medical’s Warp Red is a faster, sharper and more stable red chromogen. The newly formulated Warp Red is quick and sensitive, similar to DAB, providing an accelerated protocol and consistent staining quality. The sharp and intense red stain creates superior contrast for Multiplex IHC™. These advanced features of Warp Red result in a faster turnaround time, greater staining consistency and improved flexibility.
Vulcan Fast Red Chromogen Kit
Vulcan Fast Red is insoluble in organic solvents and can be coverslipped with a permanent mounting media. This chromogen produces a bright fuchsin-red precipitate in the presence of alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme. For optimum results, use Immunocare TBS Wash Buffer. Not for use with PBS, as PBS is a competitive inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase and will dramatically reduce staining. Vulcan Fast Red can be viewed by both brightfield and darkfield microscopy.
Ferangi Blue Chromogen Kit
Ferangi Blue can be coverslipped with a non xylene- or toluene-based permanent mounting media. This chromogen produces a bright royal blue precipitate in the presence of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. For optimum results, use Immunocare TBS Wash Buffer. Not for use with PBS.