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Smoothelin [R4A] is a mouse monoclonal antibody directed to the cytoskeletal component of smooth muscle cells (SMC) known as smoothelin. Smoothelin is exclusively expressed in fully differentiated (contractile) SMCs. Smoothelin antibody has been reported to be a useful tool in monitoring SMC differentiation; and may aid in the distinction of terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, smooth muscle neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and the staging of bladder carcinoma. Cells with SMC-like characteristics, such as myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells, as well as skeletal and cardiac muscle, do not contain smoothelin.
Bladder or colon carcinomas
1. Paner GP, et al. Diagnostic utility of antibody to smoothelin in the distinction of muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae of the urinary bladder: a potential ancillary tool in the pathologic staging of invasive urothelial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Jan;33(1):91-82.
2. Maake C, et al. Expression of smoothelin in the normal and the overactive human bladder. J Urol. 2006 Mar; 175(3 Pt 1):1152-7.
3. van der Loop FT, et al. Differentiation of smooth muscle cells in human blood vessels as defined by smoothelin, a novel marker for the contractile phenotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Apr; 17(4):665-71.
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