The Epstein – Barr virus is a member of the gamma-herpes viruses (HHV-4). It is a linear 184,000 base pair double stranded DNA virus. It was the first oncogenic virus to be discovered (1). Infection by this virus can show signs of a slight viral infection or it can be present as Infectious Mononucleosis. The most common target cells for the Epstein-Barr virus are the B lymphocytes and the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. The Epstein-Barr virus massively infects the human population and sero-epidemiological studies show that 90% of adults have been infected by this virus (2). Latently infected B lymphocytes express abundantly (104-105 copies), among other genes, a short non- polyadenylated chain of RNA that does not transduce to a protein, consisting of two fragments known as EBER 1 and EBER 2. The expression of EBER (Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs) is nuclear. Although the function of EBER is unknown, it is believed that it may play a role in virus-produced oncogenesis (3). There are numerous human tumors associated with EBV. These range from non-differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma to African Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease mixed cellularity, some B, T and NK lymphomas, as well as in lymphoproliferative processes associated with immunodeficiency(4). The in situ hybridization technique offers an important advantage over immunohistochemistry, as it virtually lacks background, and allows a clean and sharp viewing of the histological preparation.
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20 tests at 20 microliters per test
1. Epstein M, Achong B, Barr Y. Morphological and biologicalstudies on a virus in cultured lymphoblast from Burkitt’s lymphoma. J.Exp. Med. 1965; 121:761-770.
2. Henle G, Henle W, Clifford P, et al. Antibodies to EB virus in Burkitt’s lymphoma and control groups J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 1969; 43:1147-1157.
3. Komano, J S. Maru, K. Kurozumi,t. Oda, K. Takada. Oncogenic role of Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs in Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line Akata. J. Virol 1999 73:9827-31. 4. Jaffe ES, Diebold J, Harris NL, Muller-Hermelink HK, Flandrin G, Vardiman JW. Burkitt’s lymphoma: a single disease with multiple variants. The World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Blood. 1999 Feb 1; 93(3):1124.
5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory workers from occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved guideline-Third Edition CLSI document M29-A3 Wayne, PA 2005