MSH2 is a 100 kDa nuclear antigen and encodes a protein of 934 amino acids. The MSH2 antibody gene is one of only 4 known to encode proteins involved in the repair of mismatch nucleotides following DNA replication or repair. Mutations in the MSH2 gene contribute to the development of sporadic colorectal carcinoma. MSHS mutations are responsible for 50% of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). The repair of mismatch DNA is essential to maintaining the integrity of genetic information over time. An alteration of microsatellite repeats is the result of slippage owing to strand misalignment during DNA replication and is referred to as microsatellite instability (MSI). These defects in DNA repair pathways have been related to human carcinogenesis. MSH-2 is involved in the initial cognition of mismatch nucleotides during the replication mismatch repair process. It is thought that after MSH2 binds to a mismatched DNA duplex it is joined by a heterodimer of MLH1 and PMSH, which together help facilitate the later steps in mismatch repair.
Human, Mouse, Rat
1. Thibodeau SN, French AJ, et al. Altered expression of hMSH2 and hMLH1 in tumors with microsatellite instability and genetic alterations in mismatch repair genes. Cancer Res 1996 Nov 1;56(21):4836-40
2. Center for Disease Control Manual. Guide: Safety Management, NO. CDC-22, Atlanta, GA. April 30, 1976 “Decontamination of Laboratory Sink Drains to Remove Azide Salts.”
3. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Protection of laboratory workers from infectious diseases transmitted by blood and tissue; proposed guideline. Villanova, PA 1991;7(9). Order code M29-P.