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MART-1 recognizes a protein of 18 kDa, identified at MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T cells 1). MART-1 is a useful addition to melanoma panels as it is specific for melanocytic lesions (1-3). Studies have shown that MART-1 is more sensitive than HMB45 when labeling metastatic melanomas (3). Tyrosinase is a key enzyme involved in the initial stages of melanin biosynthesis. Studies have shown Tyrosinase to be a more sensitive marker when compared to HMB45 and MART-1. It has also been shown to label a higher percentage of desmoplastic melanomas than HMB45 (1).The combination of MART-1 and Tyrosinase aids in identifying metastatic melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes (2).
The transcription factor SRY-related HMG-Box gene 10 (SOX10) plays an important role in neural crest, peripheral nervous system, and melanocytic cell development (4-8). SOX10 is widely expressed in normal human tissues including melanocytes and breast tissue. SOX10 is also an important marker in malignant tumors such as melanoma, breast carcinoma, gliomas, and benign tumors such as schwannomas (4-6). More importantly, SOX10 has been shown to be expressed in the vast majority of desmoplastic and spindle cell melanomas and has also been shown to be expressed in 100% of nevi (4,5). SOX10 is also less likely than S100 to be expressed by background fibroblasts and histiocytes within scars, and thus SOX10 may be superior to S100 in these types of cases (6).
The combination of SOX10 with MART-1 and/or Tyrosinase has been shown to stain a higher percentage of melanomas in lymph nodes and in metastatic melanoma compared to S100. It has also been shown to be more specific than S100, considering that S100 stains dendritic processes in lymph node while SOX10, MART-1 and Tyrosinase are negative (7,8). The cocktail of SOX10, MART-1 and Tyrosinase may be suitable for tumors of unknown origin or in differential diagnosis of melanoma and its mimics. PATENT PENDING.
MART-1 Tyrosinase SOX10
Human; others not tested
IgG2b IgG2A IgG1
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2. Cook MG, et al. The development of optimal pathological assessment of sentinel lymph nodes for melanoma. J Pathol. 2003 Jul;200(3):314-9.
3. Blessing K, Sanders DS, Grant JJ. Comparison of immunohistochemical staining of the novel antibody Melan-A with S100 protein and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma
and melanoma variants. Histopathology. 1998 Feb; 32 (2):139-46.
4. Mohamed A, et al. SOX10 Expression in malignant melanoma, carcinoma, and normal tissues. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013 Dec; 21(6):506-10.
5. Mollaaghababa R, Pavan WJ. The importance of having your SOX on: role of SOX10 in the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes and glia. Oncogene.
2003 May 19; 22(20):3024-34.
6. Tacha D, et al. A newly developed mouse monoclonal SOX10 antibody is a highly sensitive and specific marker for malignant melanoma, including spindle cell and desmoplastic melanomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015 Apr;139(4):530-6.
7. Tacha D, et al. An Immunohistochemical Comparison Study of SOX10, Pan Melanoma Cocktail and S100 in Malignant Melanoma. American Society of Dermatopathology, 51st Annual Meeting; Poster #278, Nov 6, 2014.
8. Willis BC, et al. SOX10: a useful marker for identifying metastatic melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015 Feb;23(2):109-12.
9. Center for Disease Control Manual. Guide: Safety Management, NO. CDC-22, Atlanta, GA. April 30, 1976 “Decontamination of Laboratory Sink Drains to Remove Azide Salts.”
10. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved Guideline-Fourth Edition CLSI document M29-A4 Wayne, PA 2014.