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FGFR follows a classic receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway and its deregulation at various points of its cascade could result in malignancy1. Chromosomal translocations can lead to an expression of fusion proteins with potent oncogenic function as seen in many hematological malignancies. FGFR3 translocation brings it under the influence of a strong IGH enhancer region results in overexpression often seen in multiple myeloma and has been associated with poor prognosis2 . FGFR3 is reportedly one of the most commonly mutated genes in human urothelial cell carcinoma and has also been identified in a wide range of other cancers including cervical, prostate, lung and ovarian tumors3,4,5.
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1. Mechanisms of FGFR-mediated carcinogenesis. Imran Ahmada, Tomoko Iwata, Hing Y. Leung. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Cell Research, Vol 1823, Issue 4, April 2012, Pages 850–860.
2. Antibody-based targeting of FGFR3 in bladder carcinoma and t(4;14)-positive multiple myeloma in mice. J. Qing, X. Du, Y. Chen, P. Chan, H. Li, P. Wu, S. Marsters, S. Stawicki, J. Tien, K. Totpal, et al. J. Clin. Invest., 119 (2009), pp. 1216–1229
3. Frequent activating mutations of FGFR3 in human bladder and cervix carcinomas. D. Cappellen, C. De Oliveira, D. Ricol, S. de Medina, J. Bourdin, X. Sastre-Garau, D. Chopin, J.P. Thiery, F. Radvanyi. Nat. Genet., 23 (1999), pp. 18–20.
4. Clinical and biological characteristics of cervical neoplasias with FGFR3 mutation. C. Rosty. Nat. Genet., 41 (2009), pp. 1247– 1252
5. Constitutive activating mutation of the FGFR3b in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Y. Zhang, Y. Hiraishi, H. Wang, K.S. Sumi, Y. Hayashido, S. Toratani, M. Kan, J.D. Sato, T. Okamoto. Int. J. Cancer, 117 (2005), pp. 166–168
6. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory workers from occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved Guideline-Fourth Edition CLSI document M29-A4 Wayne, PA 2014.