D2-40 is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium in normal tissues and vascular lesions. According to studies, D2-40 effectively marked the lymphatic channel endothelium, but not the adjacent capillary. CD31, also known as PECAM-1, is a 130 kDa integral membrane glycoprotein found on the surface of endothelial cells, platelets and some hematopoietic cells. The CD31 antibody also labels endothelial cells of arteries, arterioles, venules, veins, and non-sinusoidal capillaries in various tissues. CD31 has been shown to be one of the most sensitive and specific endothelial cell markers. In addition, CD31 has been used to evaluate vascular invasion of tumors and assess angiogenesis. The combination of D2-40 and CD31 can serve as a co-marker for both lymphatic density and blood vascular studies.
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